Armored scales present on California avocados are under excellent biological control and rarely build to economic levels. This study is the first to determine which species of parasitoids attack these scales and the results are somewhat different than what we expected. The dominant parasitoids in California are 5 species of unidentified and poorly studied Signiphora wasps.
These practices are recommended for a monitoring-based IPM program that enhances the use of IPM practices to reduce the risks of pesticides on the environment and human health. This year-round IPM program covers the major pests of avocados in California. Details on carrying out each practice, example monitoring forms, and information on additional pests can be found in the Avocado Pest Management Guidelines.
Development of Pheromone-based Detection & Monitoring Systems for Invasive Scale Species Infesting Avocado 2011 Year End Report
This project has two main goals. First, we are working to establish colonies and mass rear some of the exotic scale species that are coming into California on shipments of fresh avocados from Mexico. We are also doing studies on the biology of these scales because little or no information is available, even for parameters as basic as how many generations a year they are likely to have, and how many offspring females produce, and the longevity of males and females.
Survey of Scale Insects Found on Imported Avocado and Dispersal of Scale Insects from Fruit to Host Plants 2011 Year End Report
February 2007, avocados from outside the U.S. were allowed into California for the first time. During the first months of importation, CDFA inspectors at the border between Arizona and California found several species of armored scale insects on avocados imported from Mexico, that were not known to occur in California nor anywhere in the U.S.
Between 1914 and 2007, a quarantine protected California avocado groves from pests that might be introduced into the state along with fresh, imported avocados. Soon after Mexican avocados were first allowed entry on 1 February 2007, live specimens of several species of armored scales (Family